You are called by jail deputies to see a patient who had a short seizure and now is having another. The patient has only been in jail for a couple of days. He did not mention a seizure disorder at booking. He was arrested on a meth charge.
When you arrive, the patient is on the floor of the dorm, unresponsive and twitching. What do you do?
The diagnostic problem here is whether this is a true epileptic seizure or whether this is one of the various kinds of pseudoseizure. Accurate diagnosis is important because the treatment for the two conditions is so different.
Two epileptic seizures in short succession should make you think about status epilepticus and calling an ambulance. Even if the seizure stopped and you didn’t send this patient to the hospital, you would want a detailed examination in clinic to determine why these seizures happened. Is this a manifestation of some type of withdrawal, such as alcohol withdrawal? Does he have a seizure disorder that he did not tell you about before? You might consider a benzodiazepine like Ativan acutely and an anti-seizure drug like phenytoin. Down the road, you might want to do a work up, such as blood work, an EEG and maybe even a specialist referral.
On the other hand, if this is a seizure look-alike such as a Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure (PNES), your treatment algorhythm would look much different. Then, your goal is just to stop the event and hopefully, be able to intervene in some way (counseling?) to prevent these from happening in the future. No ER visit. No seizure drugs. No EEG etc.
To get the diagnosis wrong—either way—would be to treat the patient inappropriately and perhaps even to harm the patient. So, accurate diagnosis is paramount.
It turns out that there are several observations, “field tests” and tools that can be useful in differentiating true epileptic seizures from pseudoseizures. There are even lab tests that can be useful! Some of these are much more reliable and accurate than others and I will point these out.
Pseudoseizures look different than true epileptic seizures. Know the key differences.
The two most important differences between pseudoseizures and grand mal epileptic seizures are:
1. During a true epileptic seizure, the patient’s eyes are open and deviated (looking off to one side or the other). The eyes of a patient having a pseudoseizure are almost always closed. And if you open the pseudoseizure patient’s eyelids with your fingers, the pupils will not be deviated—rather, they will be looking straight ahead.
2. Patients who have had a true epileptic seizure will invariable have a postictal state of confusion after the seizure ends. The postictal state typically lasts much longer than the original seizure. Patients who have had pseudoseizures do not usually exhibit postictal confusion.
Memorize these two key differences! Everything else is less important.
However, other common differences between a true epileptic seizure and a pseudoseizure can also be useful in certain cases:
3. Epileptic seizure patients go through a tonic-clonic movement pattern: flexion of the limbs followed by extension. The arms are held close to the body. Pseudoseizure patients do not follow this pattern. Often, their arms are held akimbo away from the body. They also may also do other movements not seen in a true epileptic seizure, such as rolling side to side, pelvic thrusting, rolling the head back and forth, etc.
4. True epileptic seizures build to a crescendo then abate. Pseudoseizures tend to wax and wane.
5. True epileptic seizure patients commonly bite their tongues and sometimes lose continence. Pseudoseizure patients rarely do either. (Though I once dealt with a particularly skillful patient with factitious disorder who made it a point always to bite his tongue and wet his pants when he staged an event).
6. Grand mal seizure patients usually get hypoxic transiently during a seizure since their chest muscles seize, as well. You can demonstrate this with a pulse oximeter (if you have one handy during the event). Epileptic seizure patients will often show mild hypoxia. Pseudoseizure patients’ pulse oximeter readings will remain normal.
7. Blood chemistries following a true epileptic seizure will often show an elevated CPK(due to muscle spasms), an elevated anion gap and depressed serum bicarb (due to lactic acidosis) and, most oddly, elevated prolactin levels.
True seizure patients are unconscious!
This is the single most important difference between a true Epileptic Seizure and a pseudoseizure: patients having an epileptic seizure are unconscious! Pseudoseizure patients may be unresponsive, but they are not unconscious.
This insight is, of course, useful when a patient is carrying on a conversation during a “seizure” event–like the patient who once said to me while she was shaking (with her eyes closed, by the way): “I’m having my seizure now! You will need to give me Xanax. It’s the only thing my doctor found that helps.”
Most pseudoseizure patients, however, do not give themselves away so easily. They are more typically unresponsive: You can talk to them, shake them—no response.
In my emergency medicine training, I was taught many ways to determine whether a patient was truly unconscious or not. One method was to take the patient’s hand and drop it over their face. If the patient is unconscious, the hand will smack them in the face. If the patient is not unconscious, the hand will invariably slide away to the side. I personally don’t use this procedure.
A method more commonly taught in training programs is the sternal rub. It is so commonly taught that I bet almost everyone reading this is aware of this test! The sternal rub consists of using your knuckles to rub forcefully up and down the patient’s sternum. The idea is that this hurts, and if the patient is not unconscious, he will wake right up and say stop! Unfortunately, the sternal rub has a couple of problems. First, how painful it is depends on how forcefully one rubs, on how much fat “padding” the patient has and on the patient’s tolerance to pain. I have seen the sternal rub fail on many occasions for one or more of these reasons.
Because of this, I was taught in my residency several other even more painful procedures to inflict on unresponsive patients—nerve roots to poke, pressure points to grab ala Mr. Spock, and—well, you get the point. Similarly, I’ve seen health care providers use foley catheters and large bore IVs to “wake up” a patient they suspected of having a pseudo-event.
However, the more important problem with all of these painful techniques is that they are ethically questionable. Intentionally hurting our patients? I don’t know. Such procedures especially tend to be misused when the medical provider feels angry at the patient for “faking” a seizure. I’ve seen “caregivers” become quite cruel and even borderline sadistic applying such painful procedures. I personally am uncomfortable with these techniques . . . especially when there is a better alternative.
The single best test to distinguish pseudoseizures from true epileptic seizures is the ammonia capsule, properly used.
Contrary to the sternal rub, I have never seen an ammonia capsule fail. No conscious person can inhale ammonia fumes and not react. It is a reflex as much as anything. Plus ammonia has the advantage of being unpleasant but not painful.
The trick is knowing how to use ammonia capsules correctly. Like any other tool, ammonia can be used effectively or misused. But I have never seen or read anywhere where the proper use of ammonia capsules is taught. I intend to rectify this sad situation!
Next on JailMedicine: A Pictorial Tutorial on the Proper Diagnostic use of Ammonia Capsules
Mandatory disclaimer: I have presented here my own opinions, which I have developed as a result of my training and experience. Feel free to disagree! I might be wrong. But if you do disagree, please explain why in comments!
Absolutely on target! Thoughts:
1. Whenever possible medical records are golden – most ‘true’ seizure patients have lots and a pharmacy history (not always true – just had a young very non-compliant seizure patient; bless the ED Doc who wrote that in the record.
2. Another irritant procedure – less likely to be abused – rubbing up under the nasal septum – not much force required but quite the irritant
3. Explaining it to corrections officers is a real challenge – ‘Pseudo’ = fake right? or Why aren’t you giving him / her medicine?
4. Last thought – Valium (not Xanax – but Dilantin is better) may be a good idea until the differential is resolved
I quite enjoyed your article. I have trained the correctional staff here to use Ammonia Capsules in obtaining information for me. (Seizures have a funny way of happening after the Nurse has gone home for the evening. ). The officers seem to feel more comfortabe using the capsules verse actually having to touch the inmate in their presented state. Less chance of the inmate getting harmed while determining their status.
Yes, yes and YES! Totally on point. Good job!
And I find that once I give the person the “good news” that they don’t have seizures, they quit trying to use that ploy. At least at our jail. All bets are off when they go out to court or other facilities.
I have PNES and I can DEFINITIVELY tell you that sternum rubs are extremely painful. There are times, where I am seizing so violently, that the sternum rubs will actually cause me to pass out, because between the seizing and the pain, I can’t “come to.” I will only “remember” because my chest will be badly bruised, and it takes months to recover from. In my experience, 90% of the time, PNES episodes, doesn’t need to result in calling 911. However, that 10% is extremely dangerous for me. I don’t remember them. I don’t remember anything, other than bits and pieces. And, I guarantee you, if you ask anyone who is diagnosed with PNES, NEAD. or FND, they will tell you that the term “PSEUDO-SEIZURES” is an extremely OFFENSIVE term. We are NOT faking them. They are uncontrollable; the seizures themselves cause us pain throughout our body. We can either “come to” quickly or it can take days to fully recover. Sometimes it’s a random part of the body (severe, uncontrollable tremors or shaking), which (in my case), I am normally conscious for. iIn other cases, there are auras, extremely violent seizures, extreme confusion and disorientation, to the point where medical personnel, have tied me down, because I was physically hurting myself while unconscious (repeatedly and uncontrollably hitting myself in the same place, kicking, thrashing, not breathing properly to do having seizures in the chest.) I can tell you from personal experience, no matter if I am unconscious or not-sternum rubs are under no circumstances-what I need. Not to mention, 50% of those with PNES, NEAD, FND, have an underlying epileptic disorder. However, it often overlooked or not diagnosed properly, because most hospital doctors (that I have encountered) believe I am “faking” or have NEVER even heard of these types of seizures. I am not saying there isn’t times where we may need medical attention. I am saying if you don’t know what exactly PNES is or never heard of them, then please educate yourself in order to educate others. I for one, am not opposed to ammonia capsules. That is definitely better than sternum rubs.
I’m not in jail or a criminal. Im somewhat recluse because of fear of people seeing me so helpless and acting weird. Seizures scare people. My doctors are trying to diagnose my seizure like activity. I assure you I am not taking! The seizures are embarrassing and terrifying. I may be able to hear but try as I might I cannot control my body or speak. I was diagnosed in my 20s by an eeg test to be epileptic. I stopped taking the seizure medication because I wanted to have a baby and feared any medication. The seizures continue I am now 63. Two doctors have suggested but not diagnosed pysudo seizures and say there is a j conscience traumatic events In don’t recall that are triggering the seizures . This based upon edge where no seizure occurred. The other doctors and hospitals put me on anti seizure medication. I would prefer to have pjs as it’s not a physical disease. However doctors cannot agree on me. I have been witnessed and hospitalized for the seizures what ever they may be. I have not had a seizure since taking anti seizure meds. I do see a psychiatrist for depression, PTSD, and anxiety. I have taken valium for years. It did not prevent seizures. Doctors are now recommending tapering off valium and taking anti desire meds twice a day. They seem to work but I myself wonder if it’s epilepsy or pjs. Because I have symptoms of both. Example some times ii am dead cold unconscious unconscious. But sometimes I can hear but not respond. My eyes act weird and lids close or flutter. I fight to maintain what conscience I have. I AGREE WITH THE USE OF AMONIA AND BREAKING THEM. a nurse recently used it on me by smearing the amonia under my nostrils and upper lip. I don’t recommend that technique. I did not immediately respond because I couldn’t but I was aware enough to suffer and have difficulty breathing because it was on my skin under my nose. I plan on asking my neurologist to prescribe ammonia capsules to me. Just incase. If nothing else, they do help revive one. Although in my case not rapidly nor dramatically. I would love to know how to prevent the seizures. For the past three months taking medication has done the. Trick. But I fear if I have pysudo seizures won’t they occur even on anti seizure meds??? I’m scared and embarrassed. They also when I’m alone. The medication I take to prevent seizures is LACOSAMIDE 50 mg tablets twice a day. Can you advise me please?
Totally incorrect and clinically irresponsible. There are several flavors of true seizures: simple partial, complex partial, generalized, etc, not all of which can be confirmed via a 1-hour EEG, serum testing, eye deviation, etc. If a patient is undergoing any kind of chemical withdrawl, this would complicate any presentation of post-ictal confusion. The absolute worst thing you can do is brush off true seizure activity as “pseudo,” resulting in mismanagement, potential harm to the patient, and custody officer bias. Memorize this: Use trustworthy resources. Pseudoseizures are absolutely a diagnosis of exclusion. 1% of the general population will have a seizure at one point in their lifetime.
Thanks for the comment Erin. In the my last post on the subject, I made the following points: 1. The absolute worst mistake that a clinician can make in evaluating these patients is to diagnose a pseudoseizure–and be wrong. 2. Approximately 1/3 of patients who have pseudoseizures also have real epileptic seizures, as well. 3. In order to reach the right diagnosis and to treat the patient correctly, it is important to get rid of all of the negative emotional baggage that we tend to have when we think a patient is “faking.” I assume you agree with each of those statements. In addition, I would add that to treat a Psychogenic Non-Epileptic Seizure or a factitious event as if it were a real epileptic seizure is also a mistake that can result in harm to a patient, both in the short and long term. I’ve seen it happen.
Dr. Keller I totally agree, I have seen a pt continue with a pseudo seizure on a new MD to corrections and he gave so much Ativan waiting on the ambulance that the inmate went into respiratory arrest. This pt in the past had exhibited multiple pseudo seizures and upon any new provider would try again to get loaded on Ativan. Thank goodness he lived.
Excellent point, Kim! There are potential serious consequences to getting this diagnosis wrong–either way!
These articles you’ve written are so helpful. I’m an EMT working at a county jail and while I have a baseline knowledge of seizures, I’m not use to people faking it so much. I constantly worry about being biased and not properly treating a pt but these articles have really helped me understand how to handle things moving forward. This shift I had 3 pseudo-seizures and it’s generally a favorite act for the inmates so there will be many more.
Again thanks so much! Glad to have found this site!
Good luck Stephanie!
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I disagree with some statements here. Not all NES patients are faking it as many of you claim. I think you should do more research on the topic. People that have NES have potentially gone through some form of psychological trauma or handle stress and anxiety in different manners.
Thank you Ja’net! As I have written many times, health care providers should almost never assume that a patient is “faking” or “malingering.” That road leads to disaster.
Dr. Keller – Excellent article. I’m an internist, currently working in an opioid treatment setting. I spent 8 years as an internist in a military clinic caring for soldiers, military retirees, and military dependents. From time to time I would be called to the lobby because of a person suspected of having seizure activity. One thing that was helpful to me was to very gently hold one arm by the wrist. That would generally extinguish the tonic clonic motions. In residency, I saw enough patients with epileptic seizures to note that the T/C motions would continue no matter what. No experience whatsoever with seizures induced by drugs of abuse and probably wouldn’t be able to recognize them.
This may be a bit of ‘gilding the lilly’
Somatic Expression of Psychogenic Stress
A recent post on this site spoke to difficulties with PNES, NEAD or FND; one expression of this ‘syndrome’ is ‘Pseudo-Seizures’. The individual, rightfully, complained about the use of a ‘sternal rub’ and implications that the events were considered ‘faking’. There are several issues associated with the initial (mis / mal) treatment of these events. Patients, correction staff and some health care staff have a great deal of difficulty understanding / accepting the concept that psychogenic stress can produce physical consequences – so, a question: What part or function of the body is not controlled by the brain (seat of emotional events).
Somatization is defined as multiple, recurrent and frequently changing unexplained somatic complaints. These physical symptoms usually present for several years, (at least 2 years) before the patient is referred to a psychiatrist. It is associated with a long, complicated history, negative investigations and fruitless operations with the patient’s refusal to accept the advice or reassurance of doctors. Marked depression and anxiety are frequently present and may justify specific treatment. (see ICD-10)
Patients often seek medical help for these symptoms, such as pain, weakness or shortness of breath (or other various complaints), that results in major distress and / or problems functioning. The individual has excessive thoughts, feelings and behaviors relating to the physical symptoms.
There are many ‘real’ physical symptoms: Hypertension, Ulcer, Back Pain, Headache, Asthma, etc. that have some form of psychological component. These patients are not faking nor dramatizing – although that can happen. There is some probable relationship to a conversion disorder. A ‘cognitive dissonance’; resulting from difficulty coping with psychologic process (anxiety, depression, trauma, etc.) results in a physiologic expression of that stress. Use of a ‘sternal rub’ would clearly be inappropriate for someone experiencing a ‘panic attack’ – so why would it be used here.
One take-away from the post should be proper education of all staff (and patients) to craft an understanding of this process. No matter the cause, an apparent seizure would engender the necessary steps to protect the patient (cushion from injury – not tie down). Understanding of the psycho-physiologic connection and process. Appropriate referral to mental health staff.
The post also suggests that a large proportion (50%) of those with PNES, NEAD. or FND do have some underlying neurologic process. A brief review of the literature does not support that view. The ‘Gold Standard’ of epileptiform conditions is the electro-encephalogram (EEG). Regardless of the presence of seizure activity; the EEG will reveal abnormalities and confirm / exclude the presence of a ‘seizure disorder’.
Two of many good articles are:
Blood glucose on all altered LOC